Geraniums P H N
Geraniaceae:  Pelargonium (zonale x hortorum?)
Geraniums, 2000
Geraniums, 2000
Rose Sizzler
2014
April 10: I overwintered 3 plants and they have been doing well under the lights. They have many dark leaves, but short stems. I did not supply much water. The got fertilizer once. Today I took 13 cuttings.
11: I put those 13 cuttings in moist perlite and back under the lights.
20: No sign of roots. I put those 13 cuttings back in perlite and submerged their pot in water.
25: I removed the pot from the water so that the cuttings are again in moist perlite.
May 4: 6 cuttings have small roots. I planted them and returned the others to water.
June 17: I have put out 9 plants from cuttings and 2 that were overwintered.
 

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Rose Sizzler

b>2013
June 5: I set out the plants I overwintered. Six survived. They were planted 3 to a pot and I guess some didn't get their share of water.
July 4: Most are in flower.
September 23: They flowered beautifully much of the summer.
 
2012
April 14: My overwintered plant is large. I took cuttings and put them in water.
September 15: Good success with the cuttings this year. Some rooted in the water, some rooted when I transferred then to vermiculite, and some more when I put them back in water. They have done well in the garden too.
December 31: I brought 9 plants in and they are doing fine.
 
2011
June 5: I set my overwintered plant out in the raised bed.
September 27: The plant is large. At one point during the summer it was covered in blossoms, but there are few or none now.
 
2010
December 31: I have one plant overwintering.
 
2009
April 4: I have one plant growing well indoors.
June 6: I put it out.
 
2008
April 1: I took cuttings from my indoor plant.
2: I put the cuttings into vermiculite and put them on the warming mat. I first moistened the vermiculite to what I think is a good moisture level, moist but not wet, then weighed the pot with the vermiculite and cuttings: 380 g. I intend to add water to keep its weight at 380 g in order to keep the moisture level optimum.
23: I checked the cuttings. Two of them had a tiny root. I cut the long cuttings shorter and put them all back in the vermiculite.
May 17: At least one more cutting had rooted (barely), and I put it in soil.
24: I set out my over-wintered plants and the early cuttings.
June 16: I set out my cuttings.
 
2007
May 21: I set out 1 plant.
June 24: Doing well. In flower.
 
2006
May 19: I bought a plant at a church plant stand.
22: I set it out.
August 1: Doing ok. Not very large.
 
Crimson Geraniums

2009
April 4: I have one plant growing well indoors.
June 6: I put it out.
 
2008
March 30: I took cuttings from my large indoor plant.
31: I put them in perlite, that I will try to keep just barely moist, that is above a layer of pebbles in a pot sitting in a tray of water that is on the warming mat.
April 14: I removed them for inspection and found the perlite was wet. Two cuttings had roots. I replanted them in vermiculite, moistened and weighed after. I cut the bottoms of the long cuttings off, as advised in an article I read recently, copied below. I will water them by weight to keep the moisture level constant.
May 17: At least one more cutting had rooted (barely), and I put it in soil.
24: I set out my over-wintered plants and the early cuttings.
June 16: I set out my cuttings.
 
2007
May 21: I set out 1 plant.
 
2006
April 8: I got 3 cuttings from my plant. I also set up the water bed heater in the dining room to provide bottom heat to help root the cuttings.
May 22: One cutting developed 2 small roots. It is in a styrofoam cup now.
25: I set the mother plant out.
August 1: Doing well.
 
2005
May 9:  I have 2 plants indoors. One has white flowers and I do not know what sort the other is.
17:  I set them out.
27:  Many of the leaves have bleached, but there is lots of new growth. I guess they needed more hardening off.
July 7:  Still only one in flower.
19:  Buds on the second plant show it has crimson flowers.
~September 20:  Dug and brought in, each in its own pot.
 
2004
February 24:  I took about 20 cuttings, dipped them in hormone gel, and put them in perlite under the sodium lamp.
26:  I added about 20 more.
March 20:  I checked them and found that their stems were rotting.   The perlite was much wetter than I expected.   I discard some and recut the rest and put them into new perlite.   They are under the fluorescent lamps with their bases warmed by the sodium lamp below them.   The plants in the box are producing new growth and doing well.
May 21:  I set out my plants from the box.   All my cuttings died.
July 31:  Flowering nicely, especially the pinks.
October 18:  I brought in only 2 plants, and I don't know what colours.
 
2003
February:  I increased the water to the saved plants.
March 21:  I took a few cuttings off them.
22:  I put the cuttings in perlite and vermiculite in a nearly sealed container.   I wet the medium with 10-52-10 solution.
May 17:  I set 10 cuttings out, colours unknown.
20:  Frost overnight destroyed the leaves.   I hope they are able to recover.
May 22:  I set out some of my old plants, and used some to replace some of the frozen ones.
June 15:  The frost-affected plants are recovering and growing new leaves.
July 5:  There have been pink flowers for some weeks now, and flowers of the other colours are developing and beginning to open.
29:  A wonderful show now, especially of the pinks.
~September 29:  I jammed all the plants into a ledge box and brought them in.
 
2002
March 10: I transferred the plants that were in the second box into small pots. Most of the plants are the crimson-flowered variety.
May 27: I put cuttings and small plants into the boxes.
28: I put cuttings and saved plants into the garden.
August 2:  Doing well around the clematis.
October 6:  I dug them up from the clematis bed, cut them far back, and planted them altogether in the same pot, which is now in the piano room.
 
2001
January 7: Doing all right in the basement or north window.
May 5: Taken outside.
June 18: Doing alright.
July 1: Flowering nicely.
December 2: I cleaned out one box when I brought it in and jammed the plants together into pots, but the other still has many undisturbed plants.
 
2000
April 21: The plants in the boxes are doing well.
July 8: There are a few flowers now, and lots of leaves.
August 7: Many flowers now.
October 3: I brought the box in, and just in time.
 
1999
February 25: I began watering my boxed geraniums more generously today, to get them growing again. There are two window boxes of them, in different colours.
March 24: I took 3 cuttings from a crimson-flowered plant today, and put them in water. The plants in the window boxes are growing well.
April 10: The 3 cuttings all have roots.
15: I divided one cutting into 2, and planted the 4 plants into a 4-pak.
May 24: The plants in the boxes are not doing well. They have been out for about 2 weeks now. Many of their leaves have flopped over. I believe the adjustment to outdoors was very hard for them. I expect they will recover.
29: They are still going on, but have essentially lost all their indoor leaves. I fixed the boxes to the railing today, and filled in some of the gaps left by dead or missing plants. I put one plant into the garden.
June 30: The plants are coming along well, with new leaves replacing the ones they grew indoors. There are almost no flowers yet.
August 3: Flowering very nicely, in the boxes and in the garden.
31: The same.
October 2: I brought the boxes in. A few leaves have been damaged by frost.
November 21: Doing fine in the basement. Most leaves are gone, of course, but enough are left.
 
1998
March 20: All over-wintered plants were individually potted.
21: 4 cuttings put into water.
27: 4 fresh cuttings put into perlite and peat, in a pot with drainage, and 4 let dry off.
April 1: 2 in water show roots.
June 1: Outside around clematis.
 
1997
June 4: Establishing themselves around the clematis.
August 7: Flowering nicely.
December 27: Growing inside in a tub.
 
1994
February 17: I started some cuttings in vermiculite on an electric blanket. They rooted fine.
April 13: I took some more cuttings, mostly to cut back the mature plants.
June 20: The plants around the clematis are doing fine.
October 30: Still doing fine.
 
1993
August 18: In flower.
September 4: They have flowered well.
 
White Geraniums

2009
April 4: I have one plant growing well indoors.
June 6: I put it out.
 
2008
March 31: I took cuttings from my indoor plant.
April 1: I put them in perlite, that I will try to keep just barely moist, that is above a layer of pebbles in a pot sitting in a tray of water that is on the warming mat.
April 14: I removed them for inspection and found the perlite was dry. I replanted them in vermiculite, moistened and weighed after. I will water them by weight to keep the moisture level constant.
May 17: At least one more cutting had rooted (barely), and I put it in soil.
24: I set out my over-wintered plants and the early cuttings.
June 16: I set out my cuttings.
 
2007
May 21: I set out 1 plant.
 
2006
April 8: I got 3 cuttings from my plant. I also set up the water bed heater in the dining room to provide bottom heat to help root the cuttings.
May 22: One cutting developed 2 small roots. It is in a styrofoam cup now.
25: I set the mother plant out.
August 1: Doing ok.
 
2005
May 9:  I have 2 plants indoors. One has white flowers and I do not know what sort the other is.
17:  I set them out.
27:  Many of the leaves have bleached, but there is lots of new growth. I guess they needed more hardening off.
July 7:  Still only one in flower.
19:  Buds on the second plant show it has crimson flowers.
~September 20:  Dug and brought in, each in its own pot.
 
2002
March 10: I transferred the plants that were in the second box into small pots. One plant, at least, is white-flowered.
May 27:  I put cuttings and small plants into the boxes.
August 2:  2 plants are doing well in the boxes.
 
2001
January 7: Doing all right in the basement or north window.
May 5: Taken outside.
June 18: Doing alright.
July 1: Flowering nicely.
December 2: I cleaned out one box when I brought it in and jammed the plants together into pots, but the other still has many undisturbed plants.
 
2000
April 21: The plants in the boxes are doing well.
July 8: There are a few flowers now, and lots of leaves.
August 7: Many flowers now.
October 3: I brought the box in, and just in time.
 
1999
February 25: I began watering my boxed geraniums more generously today, to get them growing again. There are two window boxes of them, in different colours.
May 24: The plants in the boxes are not doing well. They have been out for about 2 weeks now. Many of their leaves have flopped over. I believe the adjustment to outdoors was very hard for them. I expect they will recover.
29: They are still going on, but have essentially lost all their indoor leaves. I fixed the boxes to the railing today, and filled in some of the gaps left by dead or missing plants. I put one plant into the garden.
June 30: The plants are coming along well, with new leaves replacing the ones they grew indoors. There are almost no flowers yet.
August 3: Flowering very nicely, in the boxes and in the garden.
31: The same.
October 2: I brought the boxes in. A few leaves have been damaged by frost.
November 21: Doing fine in the basement. Most leaves are gone, of course, but enough are left.
 
1998
January 19: All 11 seeds sprouted and are doing fine under lights.
~February 3: Moved to 4" round pots, by Stewart.
March 20: Moved upstairs. Main tip pinched.
April 1: 1 flowering. I should have pinched the tips much earlier.
April 26: All in bud.
June 1: In the planters.
 
1997
December 17: 11 seeds started on paper towelling in the warming box I just built.
20: Seeds moved into soil.
24: 5 sprouts, 4 in one pak, 1 in the one that looks drier.
25: Sprouts put under lights, the other 6-pak left in the box.
 
Pink Geraniums

2002
March 10: They are doing fine.
28: I took 4 cuttings from one plant. I dusted them with rooting powder, put the leafy parts in a plastic bag, and left the stems sticking out to dry.
May 27: I put cuttings and small plants into the boxes.
August 2:  Seven plants are doing well in the boxes.
 
2001
October: None grew in the boxes this year, but I fetched 2 plants from the city planters on Pembina Highway just before frost killed them.
 
2000
April 21: There have been no pink flowers in the boxes, so I believe all the pink flowering plants have died.
 
1999
February 25: I began watering my boxed geraniums more generously today, to get them growing again. There are two window boxes of them, in different colours.
May 24: The plants in the boxes are not doing well. They have been out for about 2 weeks now. Many of their leaves have flopped over. I believe the adjustment to outdoors was very hard for them. I expect they will recover.
29: They are still going on, but have essentially lost all their indoor leaves. I fixed the boxes to the railing today, and filled in some of the gaps left by dead or missing plants.
June 30: The plants are coming along well, with new leaves replacing the ones they grew indoors. There are no flowers yet.
August 3: One flower.
31: No blossoms right now.
October 2: I brought the boxes in. A few leaves have been damaged by frost.
November 21: Doing fine in the basement. Most leaves are gone, of course, but enough are left.
 
1998
February 18: Fertilizer and more watering begun.
21: 6 cuttings put into vermiculite in the warming box.
28: Not doing well. One discarded. I put a plastic bag over the others.
March 15: All cuttings rotten and discarded.
19: All over-wintered plants potted individually and brought upstairs.
21: 4 cuttings put in perlite and peat.
28: 4 more, plus 4 drying overnight.
April 19: Many cuttings have roots, about 2/3 of them.
June 1: They are in their boxes.
 
1997
June 4: Doing well, all in one box, where they spent the winter.
December 26: Growing inside in a tub.
 
1996
May 4: The ones in the window box are doing fine but the first set of cuttings have almost all rotted. Two cuttings from last year in separate pots are also doing well.
May 26: Boxes set out, I hope for the summer with no frosts.
September 4: They have flowered very nicely.
 
1995
May 8: I left the plants in the deck box all winter, with little water or light. They survived, mostly, but did not do well and did not come back well when I started to give them water and sun in February. Now only 4 are definitely alive, and 2 may be alive. They are outside now. I put worm compost-manure in the box yesterday. None of the 4 cuttings I took is rooting in vermiculite.
June 1: They are doing ok. No cuttings have rooted.
July 7: The plants in the boxes are flowering nicely.
September: All plants were transferred to 1 box, and kept going all winter.
 
1994
February 17: I started some cuttings in vermiculite on an electric blanket. All rotted except one.
April 13: Put some more cuttings into rooting media, since none of the first batch rooted.
20: The only pink cutting has rooted.
June 20: 12 plants in the deck boxes, doing fine.
September 1: They didn't do so well; perhaps there was too much rain and shade.
 
1993
August 18: In flower.
September 4: They have flowered well.
 
Open Pollinated Seeds

1999
January 1: There was some swelling and perhaps a root bud on several seeds.
2: I planted 9 seeds with buds into soil under continuous light.
15: I discarded the seeds; none had actually sprouted.
 
1998
December 30: I put 24 seeds from last year's garden between wet paper towels, and in a plastic bag in the germination box.
 
Red Geraniums

1993
August 18: One flower on the red geraniums from seed.
 

Propagation of Geranium Cuttings

by Dr J Raymond Kessler, Jr, Auburn University (http://www.ag.auburn.edu/hort/landscape/zgeranm.htm, April 14, 2008)
 
Cuttings - Cuttings should be harvested early in the morning, preferably by snapping them off manually. Terminal cuttings should be about 2-inches long (larger is not better) with two maturing leaves. Remove any basal leaves that may end up below the soil line. In cases where cutting material may be limited, single-eye cuttings may be used. A stem may be divided into several single-eye cuttings composed of an internode and node with attached leaf and dormant lateral bud. Single-eye cuttings require 2-3 weeks longer to reach a flowering stage.
 
Medium - Geraniums may be rooted in a variety of media from conventional peat-lite media to specialized cubes, trays, or strips using peat, rockwool, or other synthetics. This may include cell-packs, Jiffy strips, Oasis blocks, or Jiffy pellets. Regardless, rooting medium must be exceptionally well-aerated, well-drained, and sterile with a pH or 5.8-6.2. Some sources recommend a rooting hormone while others do not. If used, 500 ppm Indolebutyric acid (IBA) works well. Cuttings should not be dipped into hormone solution or powder. Liquids may be sprayed on the cutting bases. Powders may be applied to the cutting bases using a "puff-duster". Dipping cutting in 2500-5000 ppm B-Nine the day before sticking can also speed rooting.
 
Spacing - Stick the cuttings into the rooting medium ¼ to ½ inch deep but no deeper. Geranium cutting should be spaced so the leaves of adjacent cuttings do not overlap, about 2" between cuttings or 22 to 36 cuttings per square foot. Botrytis can be a serious problem in propagation and adequate spacing and excellent ventilation will help.
 
Temperature - The most rapid rooting occurs with a 60-62F night temperature in combination with 68-72F bottom heat. Try to keep day temperature 75-80F.
 
Light - Geranium cuttings need high light during propagation but can benefit from some shade late in the spring to control temperature. In propagation, light levels should be 1800 to 2800 foot-candles until roots form (12-18 days) then 2800 to 3600 foot-candles until transplant.
 
Carbon Dioxide - Supplemental CO2 at 800-1000 ppm increases rooting speed and early root system growth.
 
Stock-plant Factors - The environmental and nutritional condition of stock plants can have a big impact on the rooting of cuttings. Over-succulent cutting root poorly. Moderate moisture and temperature with high light is best for optimum cutting results. The highest rooting percentage is obtained when stock plants receive medium nitrogen and high phosphorus and potassium.
 
Scheduling - Roots should appear at the base of the cuttings in about 12 to 18 days from sticking. Cuttings are usually read to transplant in 3-4 weeks.
 
Mist - Mist intervals will vary with the condition of the cuttings, time of year, environmental conditions, and the performance of the misting equipment. The goal, however, is to maintain foliage turgidity with a minimum amount of foliage wetting. There should be little or no run-off into the propagation medium. As a beginning point, start with five seconds on every five minutes on the first day. Watch the foliage and adjust as needed. Decrease the mist interval until misting ends by day 18. Mist at night for the first six days at five seconds on every 30 minutes.
 
Fertilization - Do not fertilize the cuttings until roots are present.
 
Geraniums, 2000
Geraniums, 2000